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Flour Descriptors + Specialty Flours

Flour Types and Uses

White flour
T
he finely ground endosperm of the wheat kernel

Bread flour is white flour that is a blend of hard, high-protein wheats and has greater gluten strength and protein content than all-purpose flour. Unbleached and in some cases conditioned with ascorbic acid, bread flour is milled primarily for commercial bakers, but is available at most grocery stores. Protein varies from 12 to 14 percent

Durum flour
Finely ground semolina. It is usually enriched and used to make noodles

Whole Wheat/ Stone Ground
Can be used interchangeably; nutrient values differ minimally. Either grinding the whole-wheat kernel or recombining the white flour, germ and bran that have been separated during milling produces them. Their only differences may be in coarseness and protein content. Insoluble fiber content is higher than in white flours.

Gluten flour
 Usually milled from spring wheat and has a high protein (40-45 percent), low-starch content. It is used primarily for diabetic breads, or mixed with other non-wheat or low-protein wheat flours to produce a stronger dough structure. Gluten flour improves baking quality and produces high-protein gluten bread

Semolina
Coarsely ground endosperm of durum, a hard spring wheat with a high-gluten content and golden color. It is hard, granular and resembles sugar. Semolina is usually enriched and is used to make couscous and pasta products such as spaghetti, vermicelli, macaroni and lasagna noodles. Except for some specialty products, breads are seldom made with semolina.

Cake flour
Fine-textured, silky flour milled from soft wheats with low protein content. It is used to make cakes, cookies, crackers, quick breads and some types of pastry. Cake flour has a greater percentage of starch and less protein, which keeps cakes and pastries tender and delicate. Protein varies from 7 to 9 percent.

Pastry flour
has properties intermediate between those of all-purpose and cake flours. It is usually milled from soft wheat for pastry-making, but can be used for cookies, cakes, crackers and similar products. It differs from hard wheat flour in that it has a finer texture and lighter consistency. Protein varies from 8 to 9 percent

Gluten-Free Flour

Organic Oat flour 
A lovely short flour. Adds a great texture to cookies and bread mixes, and can stand in for ground almonds within a recipe.

Organic Quinoa Flour
Milled from the finest white quinoa which has long been lauded for its nutritional benefits, this flour is high in protein
Gives a great boost to gluten-free loaves and complements the flavour in savoury blends.

Brown Teff Flour
Traditionally fermented and baked into Injeraa, brown Teff has a malty flavour. Made using the whole grain it’s packed with nutrients and now recognised as a super food

Teff is high in protein and contains all eight essential amino acids.  It’s good in gluten-free breads and recipes where you want a rich, dark flavour, or blend it with a starch and some creamy millet flour for a lighter result in your gluten-free loaves

Almond Flour
Made from finely ground blanched almonds.

Amaranth Flour
Made from the seeds of the amaranth plant.

Brown Rice Flour 
Milled from brown rice grains it is slightly heavier than white rice flour, and has a gentle earthy flavour – sometimes described as ‘nutty’
Blend it with a strong flour like buckwheat and some starch e.g. potato to make a gluten-free loaf. It will add protein to waffles and pancakes and is often included in gluten-free flour blends for this reason

Buckwheat Flour
Distantly related to the rhubarb family and is a naturally gluten-free pseudo-grain, it is also a complete protein containing all the amino acids

Chickpea Flour (Gram Gluten Free Flour)
Made from ground chickpeas is great to coat vegetables for pakoras or to make
flat breads. It is pale yellow and powdery and has an earthy flavour

Millet Flour (Gluten Free Flour)
A medium gluten-free flour milled from the pale, golden seed of a grass, it is high in magnesium and has a lovely creamy texture.
Soft and lightly flavoured millet is very good in gluten-free baking and can be substituted for maize where you need a corn free recipe. Combine it with white rice and tapioca starch for a basic blend.

Specialty Baking Flours


Organic Emmer Wholemeal Flour (414)

Emmer is a close relative to the Durum wheat and has been grown for centuries in remote parts of Italy.
Known as Farro in Italy this wheat is often referred to as the ancestor of modern wheats. Farro comes from the Latin “Far” hence the Italian word for flour – Farina.Being similar to Durum wheat, flour produced from Emmer is suitable for pastas

Organic Khorasan Flour (413)

Named after the Khorasan region of Northern Iran, our Khorasan flour is produced from an ancient variety of Durum wheat named ‘Khorasan’.
Wheats are the descendants of Emmer and have been traditionally cultivated over the centuries in subsistence farming systems in the Near East and Central Asia- Khorasan wheat is ideally suited to organic farming practices being a tall variety which is naturally resistant to fungal attack. In keeping with these ancient traditions, we gently stonegrind the Khorasan wheat to produce a wholemeal flour suitable for Breads and Pastas. Some people with intolerances to modern wheat varieties have found they can enjoy products made with Khorasan flour.

Organic Einkorn Wholemeal Flour

Ein’korn is one of the earliest cultivated varieties of wheat. It differs from modern wheat in that it is genetically distinct and only has single grains on either side of the ear, hence its name Ein’korn from the German meaning one.

The earliest clear evidence of cultivation is from Southern Turkey and dates from 8,650BC. More recently grains of Einkorn have been discovered at an underwater archaeological site on the Isle of Wight where it was cultivated around 6000BC. At that time Britain was still connected by land to Europe.

Einkorn has continued to be cultivated in remote agricultural communities throughout central and southern Europe where for thousands of years these precious grains have been preserved for their remarkable qualities.

Organic White Spelt Flour (408)

Spelt is an ancient grain closely related to Emmer. The origins of spelt can be traced to Neolithic times between 6000 – 5000BC.

Organic Spelt Wholemeal Flour

Spelt grain is a cereal that has been found by archaeologists in many prehistoric sites and later became popular in Roman times.

Spelt may be of interest to some people who have wheat allergies. Like wheat, spelt contains gluten and so produces good bread which people prize for its flavour and its natural richness of minerals.

European Baking Flours

French Bread Flour (T65,T55)
Produced using only French varieties of wheat. Specially for French sticks and an array of French breads

 Italian Type (00,0)

The whitest grade of flour used in the production of some of the finest Italian breads and pastas. It is treated with great respect and is very precious. Type “00” is best used for making bread and pasta.

German Rye

A wholemeal rye flour used to make dark rye breads. Some Master Bakers use dark rye flour for making the “sponge” used in traditional rye doughs.
Taking the rye flour they leave it to soak and ferment and by carefully controlling this process, bakers develop to precise levels the amount of acetic acid and lactic acid which gives flavour and keeping qualities to the finished bread.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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